In 79 CE, volcanic Mount Vesuvius erupted and buried Pompeii, Italy. Hidden from the world beneath pumice and ash, it was all but forgotten for nearly 1,500 years. But that changed in 1738 when excavation workers discovered the site preserved beneath dust and debris. In 1860, Italian archeologist Giuseppe Fiorelli took charge of the site and began a proper excavation. Fiorelli recognized the soft ashes on the site were actually cavities left from the dead, and he is responsible for filling them with high-grade plaster. Thus, the preserved bodies of Pompeii were born. Nearly 150 years later, modern science revealed strange facts about the bodies thanks to CT scans. Among the many things most folks don’t know about Pompeii is that the bodies themselves, more than almost any other existing artifacts, provide archeologists with vital information about what life was like in the ancient city.
To create the preserved bodies at Pompeii, Fiorelli and his team poured plaster into soft cavities in the ash, which were about 30 feet beneath the surface. These cavities were the outlines of bodies, and they retained their forms despite the soft tissue decomposing over time.
The plaster filled in the spaces formerly occupied by soft tissue.
A common misconception is that the plaster bodies are empty. But the cavities the bodies left were not shells in the ash waiting for the plaster. In fact, they were soft spots that still held the bones of the cadavers. When the plaster filled the soft ash, the bones were enclosed. The bodies of Pompeii are even more lifelike than they appear.
In 2015, archeologists began using CT scans to analyze the bodies at Pompeii. One of the most remarkable finds is that the Pompeians had terrific teeth. They lived thousands of years before the advent of anything even resembling modern dentistry, but experts didn’t find a single cavity in their teeth.
At first glance, this is shocking, but it actually makes quite a bit of sense.
Mount Vesuvius erupted before processed sugar was invented, and the Roman diet was high in fiber, protein, and fruits. This diet, combined with the high levels of fluorine in the air and water, made for mouths free of cavities.
Surviving until the age of 10 in Pompeii would have been a feat as children often died from infectious diseases and lack of proper treatment. Diseases leave their mark in the enamel of teeth, so archeologists have insight into some of the most common causes of death among the children of Pompeii. Syphilis ranks among the top.
There are tell-tale signs on the bones of a pair of young male twins that point to congenital syphilis.
Although many scientists previously believed that Columbus and his sailors brought syphilis back to Europe after sailing to America, this proves the disease existed in Europe more than 1,000 years before then.
Researchers discovered some of the Pompeii bodies in the fetal position. It’s a common sign of suffocation, so many experts assume the victims died when hot gasses roared through the city. Scientists also know that raining pumice caused roof collapses that killed Some Pompeians who remained indoors.
But excavators also discovered bodies in relatively casual positions. This led some scientists to believe that incredibly high temperatures from the eruption killed the Pompeians, not prolonged suffocation by ash.
Many experts believe that, after the initial wave of falling pumice and debris, whipping heat tornadoes washed over the city and instantly killed everyone in the way. This natural phenomenon is called a pyroclastic surge.
According to this theory, the victims in the fetal position didn’t end up that way because of a slow and drawn-out death. Instead, they’re in what’s called “extreme cadaveric spasm,” when the body’s muscles instantly contract from extreme dehydration.
Crack patterns in the skeletons lend further proof to the theory that Pompeians died from incredible heat.
Based on the account of Roman author Pliny the Younger, experts have long agreed that Mount Vesuvius erupted in August of 79 CE. However, there is alternative evidence that throws this assumption for a loop.
After careful clothing analysis, archeologists now posit the volcano might have erupted months later in the fall of that year. That’s because many of the fiber remains are indicative of heavier autumn attire than summer clothes.